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At the corner speed, the fighter can attain its maximum turn-rate, flying the craft just at the edge of buffeting (the turbulence preceding a stall). BFM combines the fundamentals of aerodynamic flight and the geometry of pursuit, with the physics of managing the aircraft's energy-to-weight ratio, called its specific energy. To prevent an overshoot, an attacker in lead pursuit may need to correct with an out-of-plane maneuver. This allows the attacker to make a smaller turn, correcting an overshoot, and to pull in behind the defender. Once an attacker gets behind a defender, there are three problems to solve in order to prosecute the kill. The high Yo-Yo is a very effective maneuver, and very difficult to counter. Below this speed, the aircraft will be limited to flying at lower g's, resulting in a decrease in turn rate. This puts the attacker in the defender's rear view, and the common defense is to tighten the turn. Too little energy and the attacker may not be able to get in range at all. These turns can be as high as 9 g's before the pilot begins to lose consciousness (G-LOC). Specific power", on the other hand, is the thrust divided by weight, and the fighter's ability to generate excess specific-power aids the craft in maintaining its specific energy longer when forced to turn at an energy-depleting rate. However, a high energy-package alone does not improve maneuverability, because optimum turn performance typically occurs within a range near a certain speed, called the "corner speed". Instead, the fighter's useful energy is calculated by dividing its energy package by its weight, determining its specific energy (total energy per unit-weight). This is not as effective against a faster moving opponent, so the attacker may need to accelerate to maintain pure pursuit. The defensive spiral is a maneuver used by the defender when the kinetic energy becomes depleted and other last-ditch maneuvers can not successfully be implemented.
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An offensive position is generally defined as the ability to get above or behind the enemy. Dissimilar air combat training (DACT) consists of advanced maneuvers performed by aircraft of two separate types (such as F-16 vs F/A-18). The maneuver consists of slipping into a steep, straight dive and applying full thrust. Basic fighter maneuvers (BFM) are actions that a fighter aircraft makes during air combat maneuvering, historically known as dogfighting. Much of the modern energy-management techniques, which are used in maneuvers like the Yo-Yos, were only described scientifically after John R. An unloaded extension is usually the attacker's best option, using the energy advantage to escape the slower moving defender. Pilots must have keen knowledge of not only their own aircraft's performance characteristics, but also of the opponents, taking advantage of their own strengths while exploiting the enemy's weaknesses. The roll is executed by applying hard back-stick pressure, creating the high g-forces, and adding hard rudder input to assist the ailerons in rolling the fighter. Most relative maneuvers can be grouped into one of these three categories. During a dogfight, the term "overshoot" refers to situations in which the attacker either crosses the enemy's flight path or passes the defender, ending up in front. If the defender has more energy than the attacker, an escape may be possible, but too little energy and the defender will lose maneuverability. If the two fighters turn in the same direction (i.e.: both turn to the north), they will be traveling toward each other along the same turn circle. At the same time, the wingman turns in the same direction as the defender.
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The fighter pilot uses these angles not only to get within a range where weapons can be used, but also to avoid overshooting, which consists either of flying out in front of the opponent, called a "wingline overshoot", or crossing the enemy's flight path, called a "flight path overshoot". This maneuver consists of rolling inverted and pulling back on the stick, diving the aircraft into a half loop, which changes the aircraft's direction 180 degrees. Basic fighter maneuvers consist of many varying tactical turns, rolls, and other actions to get behind or above an enemy, before the opponent can do the same. Corner speed is defined as the minimum speed at which the maximum sustainable g-force load can be generated (the load at which power equals drag), and varies with the fighter's structural design, wing loading characteristics, weight (including added weight from missiles, drop-tanks, etc...), and thrust capabilities. It often falls in the area of 250–400 kn (290–460 mph; 460–740 km/h). The maximum sustainable-load the aircraft can generate also varies, but is typically between 3 and 5 g's. Only by turning the aircraft at its best "sustained turn-rate" can the aircraft maintain its specific energy. The advantage lies in the aircraft that can pull its nose through the top or bottom of the turn faster. The maneuver consists of dropping the nose low during the turn and going into a spiral dive, using gravity to supply the energy needed to continue evasive action. There are three basic situations in air combat maneuvering requiring BFM to convert to a favorable result, which are neutral, offensive, and defensive. A lag displacement roll, also called a "lag roll", is a maneuver used to reduce the angle off tail by bringing the attacker from lead pursuit to pure, or even lag pursuit. During a turn in an oblique plane, a pitch turn occurs when the aircraft's nose points above the horizon, causing an increase in altitude. A pair of attacking aircraft will separate, often by a distance of one mile horizontal by 1500 feet vertical. After the pass, both fighters may turn to engage.
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Boyd developed his Energy-Maneuverability theory during the Vietnam War. Even so, as quoted by the U.S Navy Air Training Command, "1) The basics of ACM have not changed since the early days of aviation, and 2) A fighter pilot must maintain constant aggressiveness for success. BFM are a constant series of trade-offs between these limitations to conserve the specific energy state of the aircraft. The attacker must be able to get into the same geometric plane as the defender, get in range without overshooting, and be able to lead the target. The split-s is rarely a viable option in combat as it depletes kinetic energy in a turn and potential energy in a dive. Other limitations vary with speed and altitude, such as turn radius, turn rate, and the specific energy of the aircraft. The defender reverses into a vertical climb and into a barrel roll over the top, uc davis mfa creative writing forcing the attacker to attempt to follow. Instead, thrust is referred to as "power". Most maneuvers are offensive, such as the "barrel roll attack", "high Yo-Yo", "low Yo-Yo", and "lag roll". Maneuvers are used to gain a better angular position in relation to the opponent. In advanced training, pilots learn to fly against opponents in different types of aircraft, so pilots must learn to cope with different technological advantages as well, which more resembles real combat. Basically just a pitch turn, the fighter will be at some angle of bank before performing the half loop and roll. It both places the attacker further aft of the defender and presents the defender with the smallest amount of surface area to see. A defender that fails to outmaneuver the attacker can quickly become "out of airspeed and ideas".
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The barrel roll attack uses a much tighter loop than the roll, completing a full loop while only executing 3/4 of a roll. The defender is exposed to the attacker's guns for only a brief instant (snapshot). To some degree the energy loss may be compensated for by increasing thrust, known as applying "excess specific power", but this cannot fully make up for the losses. Using BFM as the building blocks for multiple aircraft maneuvers, such as the finger four, loose deuce, and Thach weave, pilots learn how to maneuver in situations involving one against one, one against two, two against two, two against many, or even one against many.